Monday, September 14, 2015

Facts and figures on childhood obesity

Key facts

The number of overweight or obese infants and young children (aged 0 to 5 years) increased from 32 million globally in 1990 to 42 million in 2013. In the WHO African Region alone the number of overweight or obese children increased from 4 to 9 million over the same period.
The vast majority of overweight or obese children live in developing countries, where the rate of increase has been more than 30% higher than that of developed countries.
If current trends continue the number of overweight or obese infants and young children globally will increase to 70 million by 2025.
Without intervention, obese infants and young children will likely continue to be obese during childhood, adolescence and adulthood.
Obesity in childhood is associated with a wide range of serious health complications and an increased risk of premature onset of illnesses, including diabetes and heart disease.
Exclusive breastfeeding from birth to 6 months of age is an important way to help prevent infants from becoming overweight or obese.

Consequences of obesity in childhood

Obese children are more likely to develop a variety of health problems as adults. These include:
  • cardiovascular disease
  • insulin resistance (often an early sign of impending diabetes)
  • musculoskeletal disorders (especially osteoarthritis - a highly disabling degenerative disease of the joints)
  • some cancers (endometrial, breast and colon)
  • disability.

Contributors to obesity in infants and children

Every aspect of the environment in which children are conceived, born and raised can contribute to their risk of becoming overweight or obese. During pregnancy, gestational diabetes (a form of diabetes occurring during pregnancy) may result in increased birth weight and risk of obesity later in life.
Choosing healthy foods for infants and young children is critical because food preferences are established in early life. Feeding infants energy-dense, high-fat, high-sugar and high-salt foods is a key contributor to childhood obesity.
Lack of information about sound approaches to nutrition and poor availability and affordability of healthy foods contribute to the problem. The aggressive marketing of energy-dense foods and beverages to children and families further exacerbate it. In some societies, longstanding cultural norms (such as the widespread belief that a fat baby is a healthy baby) may encourage families to over-feed their children.
The increasingly urbanized and digitalized world offers fewer opportunities for physical activity through healthy play. Being overweight or obese further reduces children’s opportunities to participate in group physical activities. They then become even less physically active, which makes them likely to become more overweight over time.

Prevention of childhood obesity

Overweight and obesity are largely preventable. Supportive policies, environments, schools and communities are fundamental in shaping parents’ and children’s choices, making the healthier choice of foods and regular physical activity the easiest choice (accessible, available and affordable), and therefore preventing obesity.
For infants and young children, WHO recommends:
  • early initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth;
  • exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life; and
  • the introduction of nutritionally-adequate and safe complementary (solid) foods at 6 months together with continued breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond.
Complementary foods should be rich in nutrients and given in adequate amounts. At six months, caregivers should introduce foods in small amounts and gradually increase the quantity as the child gets older. Young children should receive a variety of foods including meat, poultry, fish or eggs as often as possible. Foods for the baby can be specially prepared or modified from family meals. Complementary foods high in fats, sugar and salt should be avoided.
School-aged children and adolescents should:
  • limit energy intake from total fats and sugars;
  • increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, as well as legumes, whole grains and nuts;
  • engage in regular physical activity (60 minutes a day).
The food industry can play a significant role in reducing childhood obesity by:
  • reducing the fat, sugar and salt content of complementary foods and other processed foods;
  • ensuring that healthy and nutritious choices are available and affordable to all consumers;
  • practicing responsible marketing especially those aimed at children and teenagers.

WHO response

Adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2004, the WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health calls for action at global, regional and local levels to improve diets and increase physical activity.
The Political Declaration of the High Level Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non­communicable Diseases of September 2011 recognizes the critical importance of reducing the level of exposure of individuals and populations to unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. The Political Declaration commits to advance the implementation of the WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health, including, where appropriate, the introduction of policies and actions aimed at promoting healthy diets and increasing physical activity.
At the 2012 World Health Assembly, countries agreed to work towards halting any further increases in the proportion of overweight children. This is one of the six global nutrition targets aimed at improving maternal, infant and young child nutrition by 2025.
The World Health Assembly in 2014 adopted the "Global Action Plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 2013-2020" which aims to achieve the commitments of the UN Political Declaration on NCDs. The action plan will contribute to progress on 9 global NCD targets to be attained in 2025, including halting of the global obesity rates in school-aged children, adolescents and adults.

Girls’ Education and Advocacy Research Network (GEARn)

The British Council is soliciting Expressions of Interest (EoI) from teams interested in producing high quality research on inclusive education models in northern Nigeria, particularly work which has an impact on how education systems support learning outcomes for girls in primary and junior secondary school. 
Research teams will be part of the Girls’ Education and Advocacy Research Network (GEARn), whose primary purpose is  to contribute to the body of knowledge on issues of inclusion and equity in basic education in Nigeria and globally. This will be achieved through supporting the production of peer reviewed research output of the highest quality which will support the use of evidence in developing education policy in Nigeria. The network will also produce forward looking research which will support the development of government and donor policy in response to the adoption of the new Sustainable Development Goals, in particular, those focusing on education quality, access and equity. This project is particularly interested in identifying and explaining where education systems, models, innovations and institutions have resulted in improved participation and outcomes for girls and other marginalised populations.
Research teams are expected to work at state level and the British Council has prioritized the following states; Bauchi, Gombe, Jigawa, Kano, Katsina, Niger, Sokoto and Zamfara. Proposals from other states will be considered, but will have to make a stronger case for inclusion. Each state research team should be made up of three members, drawing from academic and research institutions, civil society organisations and the public sector preferably the Ministry of Education or State Universal Basic Education Board.
In the first phase of the project, the British Council expects to select six (6) state research teams. 


  • This project is open to early career researchers, below the level of Lecturer I or its equivalent. We also strongly encourage female researchers to apply and teams that meet our principles of equality, diversity and inclusion (as contained in the EDI section below) will score higher during the EoI evaluation. 


  • The request for EoI will open on 14th of September and the deadline for submission is noon on 09th of October. Between the 14th September and 2nd October, the British Council will respond to all requests for clarification received via and will respond via email. All EoIs that have been received before the deadline will be evaluated by an independent expert panel and shortlisted teams will be notified by the 23rd of October. 
  • Selected state research teams will be expected to participate in an initial feedback and research training workshop in Abuja between the 09th and 13th of November. A second training workshop will hold between the 7th and 10th of December, with a final workshop in February 2016. All members of the state research teams will be expected to participate fully in all three workshops. 


  • The British Council will cover the costs of all training sessions, including travel and related allowances for the state research teams. The British Council will also provide research grants which will cover data gathering and analysis, report production and dissemination activities in state. The British Council will also fund a national dissemination event, where the initial findings from the state research which will be shared with stakeholders.


  • To apply, please download and fill in Expressions of Interest form and submit by 12 noon on 9th October, 2015. The completed form should not exceed five (5) pages (at 11 point Arial font, single spacing with minimum margin of 1 inch). Any references cited should be provided in a separate bibliography in an annex. Detailed CVs may also be included in the annex, but should not exceed four pages for each member of the research team.


  • Requests for further information and clarification on the EoI process and the GEARn should be sent to All emails received before 12 noon on 2nd October will be answered. To ensure full disclosure, responses to all requests for information or clarification will be posted on our website in a FAQs section.   

Friday, September 11, 2015

Kim Davis released from jail in dispute over gay marriage

  • om the section
Media captionReleased clerk Kim Davis: "I want to give God the glory, his people have rallied"
A US judge has released a Kentucky official from jail so long as she does not interfere with her deputies when they issue marriage licences to gay couples.
Kim Davis, an elected official, has said that her Christian faith should exempt her from signing the licences.
If she interferes with her deputies, federal Judge David Bunning said she could be jailed for defying the court.
The US Supreme Court declared gay marriage legal in June.
After she was released on Tuesday, Ms Davis greeted a large crowd of supporters as the song Eye of the Tiger blared on a nearby speaker system.
"I just want to give God the glory. His people have rallied, and you are a strong people," she said with her lawyer, Mat Staver, and Republican presidential candidate Mike Huckabee by her side.
Mr Staver said on Tuesday she would return to work this week.
He would not say whether Ms Davis would interfere with her deputies but said "she would not violate her conscience".
Two federal courts and the US Supreme Court have ruled against Ms Davis after she repeatedly refused to issue marriage licences since June.
Rowan County clerk Kim Davis, center, hugs her attorney, Mat Staver, with Republican presidential candidate Mike Huckabee, centre left, next to her after being released from the Carter County Detention Center, 8 September in Grayson, Ky.Image copyrightAP
Image captionKim Davis is comforted by her lawyer Mat Staver
Supporters pray at the Carter County Detention Center for Rowan County clerk Kim Davis, who remains in jail for contempt of court in Grayson, Kentucky 5 September 2015.Image copyrightAP
Image captionA large crowd of supporters has gathered outside the jail where Ms Davis was being held
Ms Davis has been jailed for contempt of court since ThursdayImage copyrightEPA
Image captionMs Davis spent several days in jail
Ms Davis, a Democrat who serves Rowan County, a rural area in eastern Kentucky, was found in contempt of court on Thursday and jailed.
"God's moral law conflicts with my job duties," Ms Davis said on Thursday. "You can't be separated from something that's in your heart and in your soul."
The following day, several of her deputies began issuing marriage licences to couples.
It is unclear whether the Judge Bunning's latest order will resolve the dispute.
On Thursday, Judge Bunning offered a compromise where Ms Davis could avoid jail if she agreed not to interfere with her deputies, but she refused.
Because Ms Davis is an elected official, she cannot be fired. She could be impeached by the Kentucky legislature, but the body is not in session.

Mike Huckabee, Jeb Bush, Donald Trump, Carly FiorinaImage copyrightAP

Republicans split on Kim Davis

In support:
  • Mike Huckabee: The former Arkansas governor visited Ms Davis in jail on Tuesday and appeared by her side as she was released. "Let Kim go, but if you have to put someone in jail, I volunteer to go," he said.
  • Ted Cruz: "Outrageous she was jailed 6 days for living according to her Christian faith," he tweeted after she was released.
In the middle:
  • Marco Rubio: "There should be a way to protect the religious freedom and conscience rights of individuals working in the office," the Florida senator said.
  • Jeb Bush: "It seems to me that there ought to be common ground," the former Florida governor said. "I'm a little confused about why that can't be done."
  • Donald Trump: "You have to go with it. The decision's been made, and that is the law of the land."
  • Carly Fiorina: The former CEO of Hewlett-Packard said Ms Davis should resign. "Given the fact that the government is paying her salary, I think that is not appropriate."
  • John Kasich: "I respect the fact that this lady doesn't agree," the Ohio governor said. "But in terms of her responsibility I think she has to comply."

Wednesday, September 9, 2015

What is the best way to track down references?

Systematic searching and a clear focus are the keys to a successful literature review

Woman's hand turning dictionary pages
For anyone embarking on a literature review, says Aurélie Gandour, “one simple step will put you way ahead of all your colleagues: go and get an appointment with a librarian”.
Ms Gandour is herself an academic librarian who has worked at the Paris University Institute for Teachers’ Training (attached to the Université Paris-Sorbonne), now known as L’ESPE Paris, and currently within the NHS in the UK, training postgraduates and early career researchers in precisely these skills. She also maintains the website
Early support from a librarian, explains Ms Gandour, can smooth the process because “all literature reviews need to start with a literature search, and most literature searches will involve using bibliographic databases”. Many are “a little tricky to use”, particularly if approached in a spirit of trial and error, “so do yourself a favour and learn how to use them properly from the get-go”.
The central technique for a successful literature review, continued Ms Gandour, is to proceed methodically, building on “the great articles you’ve already found”: “The first obvious step is to systematically check the bibliography of each article you read. But you should also use Google Scholar (or any other database available to you) to check if those articles have been cited since they were published, and track down those references.
“Then do searches on the main authors to find out if they published other articles on the topic and learn about their newest research results. Finally, observe in which journals the best articles were published and take a close look at their archives.”
The only danger of this, in Ms Gandour’s view, is “getting stuck in searching mode…So it’s important to actually plan for reading breaks. Make sure you take the time to read the documents you’ve already found, take thorough notes on each of them, and save everything preciously.”
It is crucial to avoid getting “drowned under the sheer mass of the references you’re going to amass”, so Ms Gandour suggests that researchers make sure they’ve “got a good system in place to save references from the very beginning. You can do it electronically by using reference management software (such as EndNote, Zotero, Mendeley…) or the old-fashioned way with printed copies and lots of folders.”
She said that it was important to remember to follow the precise referencing style required by a university (or the journal to which an article is being submitted) – even what is known as “Harvard Style” has many variants.
“If you’re using referencing software,” notes Ms Gandour, “you should be able to choose a style with a click of a button. If you’re doing it by hand, go ask your library for the official guidelines.”
When you come to the final stage of writing up the review, the key is to focus on exactly why you are doing it (normally to support some research that you’ve done or are about to do). With that in mind, concludes Ms Gandour, “give yourself the permission to cut anything that’s out of your actual scope”. The mere fact you found something interesting should not be enough to secure it a place in the review, she said.

Mobile Technologies in Academic Libraries: Access to Elizade University Library OPAC via QR Code

Elizade University Library OPAC via QR Code

Thursday, September 3, 2015

EU on the March: VC's Welcome Message to New Students of Elizade University

On behalf of the Founder, Sir (Chief) Michael Ade.Ojo, OON, members of the Board of Trustees, the Governing Council and the University Management Team, I welcome you all most warmly, to an academic institution of truly international standard. These standards are such that would provide you equivalent educational experiences and exposures (but at a fraction of the cost) as you would have in the UK, USA, or in Continental Europe.

Prof Kunle Oloyede

It is the philosophy of the University to produce in you, that Total Man or Woman, who shall be equipped with the relevant knowledge, skills and competencies to compete effectively with any of your colleagues anywhere in the world. To be a Total person demands, and indeed, requires a blend of academic excellence and ethics consciousness which forms the basis of our Vision as a University.

To train you to become the best you can be educationally, Elizade University has gone the extra mile in providing you access to the following distinctive features/ facilities:
i)    ICT-driven Administrative procedures
ii)    Technology-driven library & laboratories
iii)    Air-conditioned Lecture rooms & Laboratories
iv)    World-Class Academics /Instructors from Nigeria, Canada, US, UK, South Africa etc
v)    Internship /work-study /scholarship opportunities for students
vi)    World-Class Hostel accommodation with double occupancy
vii)    24/7 Electricity/water supply & treatment
viii)    Excellent catering facilities & conducive business environment
ix)    Excellent indoor/out-door sporting facilities + an 18-Hole Gulf Course and,
x)    Serene Environment in which the physical facilities are in perfect harmony with nature.

During his recent visit and inspection of our facilities, the Nobel Laureate, Professor Wole Soyinka had this to say of Elizade University: “the crucial element of education, which is standard, could be enhanced with an initiative like Elizade University which is based on strategic planning. The University is nature-friendly and nature integrating. Even though I am not a science person, the laboratories are very good; the students hostels are humane and  a good architecture concept”

Perhaps, most importantly, you will find here in the University, highly dedicated and competent academic and non-academic staff that will guide and direct your training needs along our core values of: Honesty, Integrity, Responsibility and Excellence.

Once again, I welcome you to learn in the best of academic traditions.



Wednesday, September 2, 2015

Carnegie CPD4: The Group on The Last Day

After all the trainings and exposures, and of course at the end of the final Group Project presentations, we converged on the starecase of the IT Building, Department f Information Science, University of Pretoria to take the last group photo, the one you are seeing below
                                              Beautiful faces, Made in Africa!

Five Librarians Selected as 2016 IFLA/OCLC Fellows

OCLC, along with the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), has named five librarians selected to participate in the Jay Jordan IFLA/OCLC Early Career Development Fellowship Program for 2016. The program supports library and information science professionals from countries with developing economies.
The 2016 IFLA/OCLC Fellows were announced today at a news conference during the World Library and Information Congress: 81st IFLA General Conference and Assembly in Cape Town, South Africa. The 2016 Fellows are:
  • Idowu Adegbilero-Iwari, Elizade University, Nigeria
  • Željko Dimitrijević, National Library of Serbia
  • Penninah Musangi, Karatina University, Kenya
  • Rhea Jade Nabusan, Tarlac College of Agriculture, Philippines
  • Shaharima Parvin, East West University, Bangladesh
The Fellowship Program provides advanced continuing education and exposure to a broad range of issues in information technologies, library operations and global cooperative librarianship. With the selection of the five Fellows for the class of 2016, the program will have welcomed 80 librarians and information science professionals from 38 countries.
"The IFLA/OCLC Fellowship Program has made a profound difference in the lives of many of the librarians selected," said Skip Prichard, OCLC President and CEO. "Many who have completed the program go on to serve in leadership roles and have had a significant impact on those they serve in their home countries. The Fellows are truly committed to serving libraries and promoting the evolution of librarianship around the world."
During the four-week program, the Fellows participate in discussions with library and information science leaders, library visits and professional development activities. The program is based at OCLC headquarters in Dublin, Ohio, USA.
"This is one of the best opportunities available for librarians in the world," said Masimba Muziringa, University of Zimbabwe Libraries, who was a 2015 Fellow. "You get to understand best practices in librarianship. You also get to understand the trends. All of our visits gave us a broad spectrum of American lifestyle, cultural values and best practices within our profession."
The selection committee for the 2016 Fellowship program included: Fiona Bradley, IFLA; Sarah Kaddu, National Library of Uganda; Nancy Lensenmayer, OCLC; and Susanne Riedel, Universitätsbibliothek Bielefeld, Germany.
Application information for the 2017 Fellowship Program is available on the OCLC website. Information about Fellowship Program sponsorship opportunities for interested organizations is also available on the website.

About IFLA

International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) is the leading international body representing the interests of library and information services and their users. It is the global voice of the library and information profession. Founded in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1927 at an international conference, IFLA now has 1,500 members in approximately 150 countries around the world. IFLA was registered in the Netherlands in 1971. The Royal Library, the national library of the Netherlands, in The Hague, generously provides the facilities for IFLA headquarters. More information can be found at

About OCLC

OCLC is a nonprofit global library cooperative providing shared technology services, original research and community programs so that libraries can better fuel learning, research and innovation. Through OCLC, member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the most comprehensive global network of data about library collections and services. Libraries gain efficiencies through OCLC’s WorldShare, a complete set of library management applications and services built on an open, cloud-based platform. It is through collaboration and sharing of the world’s collected knowledge that libraries can help people find answers they need to solve problems. Together as OCLC, member libraries, staff and partners make breakthroughs possible.